Female hysteria

Female hysteria was a once-common medical diagnosis, made exclusively in women, which is no longer recognized by modern medical authorities. It was a popular diagnosis in Western nations, during the Victorian era, for women who exhibited a wide array of symptoms including faintness, nervousness, insomnia, fluid retention, heaviness in abdomen, muscle spasm, shortness of breath, irritability, loss of appetite for food or sex, and a "tendency to cause trouble".

Patients diagnosed with female hysteria would sometimes undergo "pelvic massage" — manual stimulation of the woman's genitals by the doctor to "hysterical paroxysm", which is now recognized as orgasm.

Early history

Hysteria's history can be traced back to ancient times; it was described by the philosopher Plato and the physician Hippocrates, in ancient Greece, and was earlier recorded in Egyptian papyri. An ancient Greek myth tells of the uterus wandering throughout a woman's body, strangling the victim as it reaches the chest and causing disease. This theory is the source of the name, which stems from the Greek word for uterus, hystera.

A prominent physician from the second century, Galen, wrote that hysteria was a disease caused by sexual deprivation in particularly passionate women: Hysteria was noted quite often in virgins, nuns, widows and, occasionally, married women. The prescription in medieval and renaissance medicine was intercourse if married, marriage if single, or vaginal massage (pelvic massage) by a midwife as a last recourse.

Victorian era

A physician in 1859 claimed that a quarter of all women suffered from hysteria, which is reasonable considering that one physician cataloged 75 pages of possible symptoms of hysteria and called the list incomplete; almost any ailment could fit the diagnosis. Physicians thought that the stresses associated with modern life caused civilized women to be both more susceptible to nervous disorders and to develop faulty reproductive tracts. In America, such disorders in women reaffirmed that the United States was on par with Europe; one American physician expressed pleasure that the country was "catching up" to Europe in the prevalence of hysteria.

Rachael P. Maines, author of ''The Technology of Orgasm: "Hysteria," the Vibrator, and Women's Sexual Satisfaction'', has observed that such cases were quite profitable for physicians, since the patients were at no risk of death but needed constant treatment. The only problem was that physicians did not enjoy the tedious task of vaginal massage (generally referred to as 'pelvic massage'): The technique was difficult for a physician to master and could take hours to achieve "hysterical paroxysm." Referral to midwives, which had been common practice, meant a loss of business for the physician.

A solution was the invention of massage devices, which shortened treatment from hours to minutes, removing the need for midwives and increasing a physician's treatment capacity. Already at the turn of the century, hydrotherapy devices were available at Bath, and by the mid-19th century, they were popular at many high-profile bathing resorts across Europe and in America. By 1870, a clockwork-driven vibrator was available for physicians. In 1873, the first electromechanical vibrator was used at an asylum in France for the treatment of hysteria.

While physicians of the period acknowledged that the disorder stemmed from sexual dissatisfaction, they seemed unaware of or unwilling to admit the sexual purposes of the devices used to treat it. In fact, the introduction of the speculum was far more controversial than that of the vibrator, perhaps because of its phallic nature.

By the turn of the century, the spread of home electricity brought the vibrator to the consumer market. The appeal of cheaper treatment in the privacy of one's own home understandably made the vibrator a popular early home appliance. In fact, the electric home vibrator was on the market before many other home appliance 'essentials': nine years before the electric vacuum cleaner and 10 years before the electric iron. A page from a Sears catalog of home electrical appliances from 1918 includes a portable vibrator with attachments, billed as "Very useful and satisfactory for home service."

Theories on Victorian hysteria

It has been argued that a major theme of the 19th century is the conflict between sex as a reproductive act and an erotic act. Although the icon of the period, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, had a large family, fecundity rates actually declined over the course of the century. As these rates declined, the reproductive purpose of sex became less central. Much of the medical and marital advice literature of the period prominently featured the passionless woman as an ideal. The "ideal" woman would engage in sex only to reproduce, as it was supposed to hold no other allure for her. This "ideal" influenced the social structure in many ways, including providing a basis for arguments against contraception. At the same time, it resulted in sexual dissatisfaction in many women, fueling the increased demand for treatment of hysteria.

Disappearance of hysteria as a medical diagnosis

Over the course of the early 20th century, the number of diagnoses of female hysteria sharply declined, and today it is no longer a recognized illness. Many reasons are behind its decline: Many medical authors claim that the decline is due to laypeople gaining a greater understanding of the psychology behind conversion disorders such as hysteria, and it therefore no longer gets the desired response from society.

It has also been argued that all that changed was where the disease was placed by physicians. With so many possible symptoms, hysteria was always a catchall diagnosis where any unidentifiable ailment could be assigned, and so, as diagnostic techniques improved, the number of cases were pared down until nothing was left. Many cases that would have been labeled hysteria were reclassified by Freud as anxiety neuroses.

Today different manifestations of hysteria are recognized in other conditions such as schizophrenia, conversion disorder, and anxiety attacks.

See also

Further reading

External links

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This article is based on "Female hysteria" from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org). It is licensed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licencse. In the Wikipedia you can find a list of the authors by visiting the following address: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Female+hysteria&action=history