Homosexual transsexual

Homosexual transsexual is a controversial term used by some sexologists to describe male-to-female transsexual women who are exclusively or predominantly attracted to males. It is less frequently used by proponents to describe female-to-male transsexual men who are exclusively attracted to females. Key characteristics include conspicuous cross-gender behavior from childhood through adulthood, and a "homosexual" sexual orientation. The term is also part of a two-type taxonomy in which all other male-to-female transsexual women have a condition called autogynephilia. That non-homosexual transsexuals are attracted to the idea or image of themselves as women.

Psychologists and sexologists define this category based on testing or self-report, noting that self-report is not always reliable. Previous taxonomies used the terms "classic transsexual" or "true transsexual," terms once used in differential diagnoses. If one did not fit this category they would often be screened out as candidates for surgery. Proponents have stated that many "non-homosexual" transsexuals systematically distort their life stories to get treatment and because some see "homosexual transsexual" as a more socially desirable diagnosis. Critics claim the term "homosexual transsexual" is demeaning because it labels people by sex assigned at birth instead of their gender identity.

History of the term

Richard Green states that since the term "transsexual" is very new, it is necessary to examine historical specifics to identify transsexuality in history, and distinguish it from other roles that are described as "change of sex", such as homosexuality and heterosexual cross-dressing customs. Green describes the cultural roles of groups such as the Two-Spirit, Hijra, Kathoey and Khanith, stating that these people are mentally indistinguishable from modern western transsexuals. In part, because of this history, past researchers have referred to the "homosexual" category as being the "classic", "primary" or "true" transsexual. At one time due to the heteronormative bias of many psychologists, transsexual people who did not fit into this category were often screened from receiving hormones and sex reassignment surgery.

Description by western science

The concept of a taxonomy based on transsexual sexuality was first proposed by Magnus Hirschfeld in 1923, and codified by Harry Benjamin in the Benjamin Scale. Kurt Freund proposed two types of cross-gender identity, based on his observation that gender identity disorder is different for homosexual males and heterosexual males. Published reports measure a "homosexual transsexual" at a Kinsey Scale 5-6 or a Modified Androphilia Scale 9.862.37. Ray Blanchard saw that homosexual transsexuals were younger when applying for sex reassignment, reported a stronger cross-gender identity in childhood, had a more convincing cross-gender appearance, and functioned psychologically better than "non-homosexual" transsexuals. Blanchard found them comparatively short and light in proportion to their height than non-homosexuals. Independent research done by Smith confirmed most of Blanchards findings, except for the difference in height-weight ratio. Dorner found that when injected with Premarin (for the treatment of mild to severe vasomotor symptoms of menopause), homosexual transsexual men showed an increased luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone response compared to heterosexual or bisexual transsexual men.

Sexual activity

Leavitt and Berger further categorized homosexual transsexuals by three patterns of sexual activity:

Each group showed varying levels of masculinity and emotional disturbance in development.

In The Man Who Would Be Queen, J. Michael Bailey saw that the homosexual transsexuals he described were comfortable with prostitution, and that they had a masculine sexual appetite and simply lusted after men.

Studies have variously found that between 10% and 36% of homosexual transsexuals report a history of sexual arousal to crossdressing. Bentler found 23%, while Freund reported 31%; Leavitt and Berger reported 36% among all homosexual transsexuals, and 24% of the sexually active subjects; Blanchard found significantly lower numbers than his peers: 15% in his first study on the topic, and 10% in a paper two years later. Blanchard saw autogynephilia in lower levels when comparing homosexual and non-homosexual transsexuals, with levels of anatomic autogynephilia among some of the 117 androphilic subjects. A lower percentage of the homosexual transsexuals reported being (or having been) married and sexually aroused while cross-dressing.

Socioeconomic factors

Researchers have found several demographic features that homosexual transsexuals tend to have in common. Ken Zucker found that homosexual transsexuals are of lower IQ and social class, immigrant status, non-intact family, non-Caucasian race, and childhood behavior problems D.F. MacFarlane studied transsexuals in Australia and New Zealand. MacFarlane found that in New Zealand that 90% of the homosexual transsexual prostitutes were M?ori, an ethnic group who are only 9% of the overall population. In ''The Man Who Would Be Queen J. Michael Bailey notes that about 60% of homosexual transsexuals he studied in Chicago were Latina or black; in his studies of gay males only 20% were non-white. He saw that most homosexual transsexuals learn to live on the streets, resorting to prostitution, or shoplifting. Bailey found the opinions of two of his subjects who attributed the difference to genetics, or inflexible gender roles in their respective cultures. MacFarlane similarly concluded that culture influenced the number of M?ori homosexual transsexuals he observed.

Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory controversy

The "BBL Controversy" also known as the "Autogynephilia Controversy" is an ongoing line of discussion in the transgendered community. The concept had not received much attention outside of sexology until sexologist Anne Lawrence, who self-identifies as an autogynephile, published a series of web articles about the concept in the late 1990s. Lynn Conway and Andrea James responded to Lawrence's essay. In 2003, J. Michael Bailey's book "The Man Who Would Be Queen" was published. Lynn Conway started an investigation into the publication of Bailey's book by the United States National Academy of Sciences. One who was referred to in the book as "Juanita" claimed that Bailey made inappropriate sexual advances towards her. Northwestern University investigated Bailey, but did not reveal the findings of that investigation and did not comment on whether or not Bailey had been punished. According to a paper by, Bioethicist and intersex specialist Prof. Alice Dreger, Ph.D. two of the four transwomen who accused Bailey of misusing their stories were not mentioned anywhere in "The Man Who Would Be Queen".

Some scientific concerns have also been raised; a purported transgendered psychologist writing under the pen name of Madeline Wyndzen identified four possible scientific concerns with Blanchard's model which center around lack of control groups, independant verification, statistical analysis, and supposing causation from non time sensitive observation. Wyndzen is concerned that Blanchard's research promotes the politically and socially dangerous idea that transsexual people are mentally defective: "Rather than asking the scientifically neutral question, "What is transgenderism?" Blanchard (1991) asks, "What kind of defect in a male's capacity for sexual learning could produce ... autogynephilia, transvestitism ...?" (p. 246)."

On the other hand in a study conducted in 2005 in the Netherlands Yolanda Smith conducted a study which addressed many of Wyndzen's criticisms. She found that Blanchards observations were replicated in her sample. Smith found that homosexual transsexuals differed from non-homosexual transsexuals in terms of reported gender non conformity and fewer had been married. She did not find the difference in height,weight, and height weight ratio that Blanchard reported.

See also

Further reading

External links

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This article is based on "Homosexual transsexual" from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org). It is licensed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licencse. In the Wikipedia you can find a list of the authors by visiting the following address: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homosexual+transsexual&action=history