Human sexual response cycle

The human sexual response cycle is a four-stage model of physiological responses during sexual stimulation. These phases, in order of their occurrence, are the excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasmic phase, and resolution phase. The term was coined by William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson in their 1966 book Human Sexual Response.

Excitement phase

The excitement phase (also known as the arousal phase) is the first stage of the human sexual response cycle. It occurs as the result of any erotic physical or mental stimulation, such as kissing, petting, or viewing erotic images, that lead to sexual arousal. During the excitement stage, the body prepares for coitus, or sexual intercourse, in the plateau phase.

Excitement in both sexes

Among both sexes, the excitement phase results in an increase in heart rate (tachycardia), an increase in breathing rate, and a rise in blood pressure. An erection of the nipples, especially upon direct stimulation, will occur in nearly all females and approximately 60% of males. Vasocongestion of the skin, commonly referred to as the sex flush, will occur in approximately 50-75% of females and 25% of males. The sex flush tends to occur more often under warmer conditions and may not appear at all under cooler temperatures. It has also been commonly observed that the marked degree of the sex flush can predict the intensity of orgasm to follow.

During the female sex flush, pinkish spots develop under the breasts, then spread to the breasts, torso, face, hands, soles of the feet, and possibly over the entire body. Vasocongestion is also responsible for the darkening of the clitoris and the walls of the vagina during sexual arousal. During the male sex flush, the coloration of the skin develops less consistently than in the female, but typically starts with the epigastrium (upper abdomen), spreads across the chest, then continues to the neck, face, forehead, back, and sometimes, shoulders and forearms.

The sex flush typically disappears soon after orgasm occurs, but this may take up to two hours or so, and sometimes, intense sweating will occur simultaneously. The flush usually diminishes in reverse of which it appeared.

An increase in muscle tone (myotonia) of certain muscle groups, occurring voluntarily and involuntarily, begins during this phase among both sexes. Also, the external anal sphincter may contract randomly upon contact (or later during orgasm without contact).

Excitement in males

In males, the beginning of the excitement phase is observed when the penis becomes partially erect, often after only a few seconds of erotic stimulation. The erection may be partially lost and regained repeatedly during an extended excitement phase. Both testicles become drawn upward toward the perineum, notably in circumcised males where less skin is available to accommodate the erection. Also, the scrotum can tense and thicken during the erection process.

Excitement in females

In females, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible and the breasts very slightly increase in size, which becomes more observable if lying on the back. The labia majora become flatter, thinner, and rise upwards and outwards in nulliparous women (those who have not given birth). In parous women (those who have given birth), they may increase two or threefold in size. The labia minora may increase in size and may protrude from the labia majora, depending on the size they are in a normal, relaxed state. The clitoral glans becomes tumescent, or swollen, like the glans of the penis. Following stimulation, vaginal lubrication is produced by the vasocongestion of the vaginal walls. They darken in color and become smoother than normal. Also, the uterus elevates, more vertically as time passes, and the inner two-thirds of the vagina expand, usually a total of 7 to 10 cm.

Plateau phase

The plateau phase is the period of sexual excitement prior to orgasm.

The plateau phase is the second phase of the sexual cycle, after the excitement phase. Further increases in circulation and heart rate occur in both sexes, sexual pleasure increases with increased stimulation, muscle tension increases further.

During this phase, the male urinary bladder closes (so as to prevent urine from mixing with semen) and muscles at the base of the penis begin a steady rhythmic contraction. Males may start to secrete seminal fluid and the testicles rise closer to the body.

At this stage females show a number of effects. The areola and labia further increase in size, the clitoris withdraws slightly and the Bartholin glands produce further lubrication. The tissues of the outer third of the vagina swell considerably, and the pubococcygeus muscle tightens, reducing the diameter of the opening of the vagina and creating what Masters and Johnson refer to as the orgasmic platform. For the women who never achieve orgasm, this is the peak of sexual excitement. Both men and women may also begin to vocalize involuntarily at this stage.

Prolonged time in the plateau phase without progression to the orgasmic phase may result in frustration if continued for too long (see Orgasm control).

Orgasmic phase

Orgasm is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. It is accompanied by quick cycles of muscle contraction in the lower pelvic muscles, which surround both the anus and the primary sexual organs. Women also experience uterine and vaginal contractions. Orgasms are often associated with other involuntary actions, including vocalizations and muscular spasms in other areas of the body, and a generally euphoric sensation.

In men, orgasm is usually associated with ejaculation. Each spurt is associated with a wave of sexual pleasure, especially in the penis and loins. The first and second convulsions are usually the most intense in sensation, and produce the greatest quantity of semen. Thereafter, each contraction is associated with a diminishing volume of semen and a milder wave of pleasure.

Orgasms in females may also play a significant role in fertilization. The muscular spasms are theorized to aid in the locomotion of spermatozoa up the vaginal walls into the uterus.

Resolution phase

The resolution phase occurs after orgasm and allows the muscles to relax, blood pressure to drop and the body to slow down from its excited state.

Men and women may not experience this refractory period and further stimulation may cause a return to the plateau stage. This allows the possibility of multiple orgasms in both sexes. However, some may find continued stimulation to be painful after the orgasmic phase.

In addition, refractory periods range from human to human, with some being immediate (no refractory) and some being as long as 12 to 24 hours.

Duration of sexual intercourse

Intercourse often ends when the man has ejaculated. Thus the woman might not have time to have an orgasm. In addition, many men suffer from premature ejaculation.

According to a Kinsey study, just under half of men reported a time to ejaculation from intromission of five minutes or less. About a fifth claimed that coitus lasted 10 minutes or longer. Others may have taken over one hour. Taking too long, however, can turn pleasure into pain.

How long should sex last? A collaborative poll of the readers of Marie Claire and Maxim magazines conducted in July 2004 showed the following:

The survey shows the largest group for women not setting a time limit and the largest group for men setting a time limit at female orgasm. Male orgasm is not mentioned. Comparing as long as possible and forever shows that 44% of women and 32% of men prefer an undefined time greater than 30 minutes.

In spite of the common belief that women need more time to get aroused, recent scientific research showed that there is no considerable difference for time men and women require to get fully aroused. Scientists from McGill University Health Centre in Montreal, Canada used the method of thermal imaging to record baseline temperature change in genital area to define the time necessary for sexual arousal. Researchers studied the time required for an individual to reach the peak of sexual arousal while watching sexually explicit movies or pictures and came to the conclusion that on average women and men took almost the same time for sexual arousal - around 10 minutes. The time needed for foreplay is very individualistic and varies from one time to the next depending on many circumstances.

A survey of Canadian and American sex therapists said that the average time for intromission was 7 minutes and that 1 to 2 minutes was too short, 3 to 7 minutes was adequate and 7 to 13 minutes desirable, while 10 to 30 minutes was too long.

See also

External links

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