Kamashastra

In Indian literature, Kamashastra refers to the tradition of works on Kama. It therefore has a practical orientation, similar to that of Arthashastra, the tradition of texts on politics, government etc. Just as the former instructs kings and ministers about government, Kamashastra aims at instructing the townsman (n?garika) the way to attain enjoyment and fulfillment.

The earliest text of the Kama Shastra tradition, said to have contained a vast amount of information, is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull, Shiva's doorkeeper, who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god Shiva and his wife Parvati. During the 8th century BC, Shvetaketu, son of Uddalaka, produced a summary of Nandi's work, but this "summary" was still too vast to be accessible. A scholar called Babhravya, together with a group of his disciples, produced a summary of Shvetaketu's summary which remained a huge and encyclopaedic tome. Between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, several authors reproduced different parts of the Babhravya group's work in various specialist treatises. Among the authors, those whose names are known are Charayana, Ghotakamukha, Gonardiya, Gonikaputra, Suvarnanabha, and Dattaka.

However, the oldest available text on this subject is the Kama Sutra ascribed to Vatsyayana who is often erroneously called as "Mallanaga Vatsyayana". Yashodhara, in his commentary of Kama Sutra, attributes the origin of erotic science to Mallanaga, the "prophet of the Asuras", meaning it originated in prehistoric times. The attribution of the name "Mallanaga" to Vatsyayana is due to the confusion of his role as editor of the Kama Sutra with that of the mythical creator of erotic science. Vatsyayana's birth date is not accurately known but he must have lived earlier than the 7th century since he is referred to by Subandhu in his poem V?savadatt?. On the other hand V?tsy?yana must have been familiar with the Arthashastra of Kautilya. On the other hand V?tsy?yana refers to and quotes a number of texts on this subject, which unfortunately have been lost.

Following V?tsy?yana, a number of authors wrote on K?mashastra, some writing independent manuals of erotics, while others commenting on V?tsy?yana. Of later works well known are Kokkaka's Ratirahasya (13th century) and Anangaranga of Kalyanamalla (16th century). Of commentators on Vatsyayana the most well known is Jayamangala (13th century).

Etymology

Kama ( '''''') is a Sanskrit word that has the general meanings of "wish", "desire", and "intention" in addition to the specific meanings of "pleasure" and "(sexual) love". Used as a proper name it refers to Kamadeva, the Hindu god of Love.

List of Kamashastra works

Lost works

Medieval and modern texts

Kamashastra and K?vya poetry

One of the reasons for interest in these ancient manuals is their intimate connection with Sanskrit ornate poetry (K?vya). The poets were supposed to be proficient in the Kamashastra. The entire approach to love and sex in K?vya poetry is governed by the Kamashastra.

References

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