Masculism (or Masculinism) consists of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men. Although masculism provides a general critique of social relations, many of its active proponents also seek to analyze gender inequality and promote men's rights, interests, and issues.
History of masculism
Modern masculism has evolved in part as a response to changing women's roles. The feminist advocacy for professional women led to a similar advocacy for fathers. For example, following the "working woman" TV programs of the 1970s (such as The Mary Tyler Moore Show) came numerous "single father" shows (such as ''Diff'rent Strokes and Silver Spoons), as well as the child-custody themed motion picture Kramer vs. Kramer''.
Masculism, however, is not merely a response to feminism. There are many issues, such as military conscription and fatherhood, that are regarded by proponents as concerns for men in their own right.
Warren Farrell is probably the most prominent author using the term "masculist" today.
Masculists cite one-sided legislation, selective enforcement, and neglected civil rights as examples of discrimination against men and boys. Examples may include:
Masculist concerns focus on societal acceptance of violence harming men paired with the stigma against violence harming women, as well as males being taught or expected to take on violent roles.
- men forced to risk their lives in male-only conscripted military service
- claims by radical feminists that the majority of men have the potential to be rapists.
- portrayal of "violence against women" as more important than other forms of violence, including "violence against men" (e.g. "never hit a woman/girl, but it is acceptable for a woman to beat a man")
- depiction of violence against men as humorous, in the media (e.g., the movie I Love You to Death) and elsewhere (see Boys are stupid, throw rocks at them!), when women are equally violent.
- assumption of female innocence or sympathy for women, which may result in problems such as disproportionate penalties for men and women for similar crimes, lack of sympathy for male victims in domestic violence cases, and dismissal of male-by-female rape cases.
- societal failure to address prison rape issues such as prevention (e.g., reducing prison crowding that requires sharing of cells), enforcement, and even correctional staff punishing prisoners by confining them with known rapists. Attention has been drawn to portrayals of male rape by women, or implied rape, as humorous (as seen in the Virgin Mobile adverts featuring Wyclef Jean) where portrayals of female rape could not acceptably be used in this fashion.
- male genital mutilation (circumcision) being socially accepted or even advocated as opposed to female genital mutilation.
- equality in child custody, such as shared parenting
- pregnancies carried to term despite agreements ahead of time that they would not be, subjecting men to unwanted parental responsibilities and/or child support expectations (see Dubay v. Wells)
- The opposite of the above, where a man who feels he wants to have a child has no say in whether his girlfriend/wife aborts his child (see paternal rights and abortion)
- equality in adoption rights (several states allow single women to adopt children but not single men)
- Legislation that addresses women's needs without considering the corresponding need in men (e.g., Women, Infants, and Children Act; Violence Against Women Act)
- Biases in the justice system against men, such as higher incarceration rates and longer sentences for men (compared to women) for the same crimes
- Statutory rape laws enforced more vehemently in instances where the victim is female and/or the perpetrator is male (e.g. the cases of Mary Kay Letourneau and Vili Fualaau, Pamela Rogers, and Debra Lafave Double Standard: The Bias Against Male Victims of Sexual Abuse)
- Rape shield laws, which may prevent some men from adequately challenging their accuser
- Cathy Young, who does not consider herself a "masculinist," argues that in rape cases, "the dogma that "women never lie" means that there is, for all intents and purposes, no presumption of innocence for the defendant"
- Women may marry at younger ages than men in some U.S. states. )
- Men pay higher premiums for auto, health, life and disability insurance, though other forms of discrimination are prohibited.
- In some countries, men have to pay more income tax than their female counterparts.
- Men not being 'believed' when being raped by their Wife, Girlfriend or Fiancee; lesser or no penalty for women that rape men
- Increasing suicide rate among young men, four times higher than among young women ; (73% of all suicide deaths are white males in the United States; In the United States, more women than men report a history of attempted suicide, with a gender ratio of 3:1) He emphasises the compatibility of both movements: "I use two podiums to debate myself as a feminist and masculist". Fred Hayward, in his speech to the National Congress for Men in 1981, states: "We must not reverse the women's movement; we must accelerate it... [Men's liberation] is not a backlash, for there is nothing about traditional sex roles that I want to go back to."
This suggests that masculism in his conception can assist and aid the women's movement. Feminists have responded to this with both encouragement and trepidation. Some feminists believe that space for women to have a voice would be threatened by the presence of men, or that a growing presence of men in the women's movement would displace the voices of the women. Others greet masculist interests in the women's movement as important for the eradication of sexism in society.
Likewise, gender egalitarians call for both masculists and feminists who are truly interested in equality to unite under one banner of gender egalitarianism. This philosophy is sympathetic to legitimate grievances of both males and females.
Masculinist literary theory
A branch of literary theory that works as an antidote to feminist literary theory. Coined from "The Masculinist Manifesto" created by Dr. Rachel Bishop, this radical testament of gender egalitarianism uses the imbalance created through feminist theory to in fact unravel feminist assumptions. As a woman, Dr. Bishop walks the line of blatant chauvinism, approaching gender inequalities in terms of its contemporary social context.
- Political ideologies
- Masculine psychology
- Pater familias
- Reverse discrimination
- Social conservatism
Men's movements and organizations
- Fathers 4 Justice
- Fathers' rights
- Genital integrity
- Men's movement
- Men's rights
- Promise Keepers
- Save Indian Family
People associated with masculism
- Warren Farrell
- Harvey Mansfield
- A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, 1792.
- On Liberty by John Stuart Mill, 1859.
- The Myth of the Monstrous Male and Other Feminist Fallacies; John Gordon, Playboy Press, New York, 1982; ISBN 0-87223-758-3
- The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex; Warren Farrell, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1993: ISBN 0-671-79349-7
- Manliness by Harvey Mansfield (2006) Yale Press ISBN 0-300-10664-5
- Not Guilty: The Case in Defense of Men; David Thomas, William Morrow and Co., Inc., New York, 1993; ISBN 0-688-11024-X
- Good Will Toward Men; Jack Kammer, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1994; ISBN 0-312-10471-5
- Moral Panic: Biopolitics Rising; John Fekete, Robert Davies Publishing, Montreal-Toronto, 1994: ISBN 1-895854-09-1
- ''The New Men's Studies: A Selected and Annotated Interdisciplinary Bibliography'' (2nd Edition); Eugene R. August, Libraries Unlimited, Inc., Englewood, CO, 1994: ISBN 1-56308-084-2
- ''A Man's World: How Real Is Male Privilege - And How High Is Its Price?''; Ellis Cose, Harper Collins, New York, 1995: ISBN 0-06-017206-1
- ''Why Men Don't Iron: The Real Science of Gender Studies''; Anne & Bill Moir, Harper Collins, Hammersmith, London, 1998; ISBN 0-00-257035-1 (Trade Paperback); ISBN 0-00-257048-3 (Hardcover)
- The Church Impotent: The Feminization of Christianity; Leon J. Podles, Spence Publishing Co., Dallas, TX, 1999. (The title is a play on the Catholic theological terms church militant and church triumphant.)
- Spreading Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture; Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young, McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, 2001; ISBN 0-7735-2272-7
- Sex Differences, Modern Biology and the Unisex Fallacy, Yves Christen
- Who Stole Feminism?: How Women Have Betrayed Women; Christina Hoff Sommers ISBN 0-684-80156-6
- The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men; Christina Hoff Sommers ISBN 0-684-84956-9
- If Men Have All the Power How Come Women Make the Rules?; Jack Kammer
- ''Domestic Violence: The 12 Things You Aren't Supposed to Know'' by Thomas B. James ISBN 1-59330-122-7
- Ceasefire! : Why Women And Men Must Join Forces To Achieve True Equality; Cathy Young ISBN 0-684-83442-1
- The Masculine Mystique; Andrew Kimbrell ISBN 0-345-38658-2
Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
This article is based on "Masculism" from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org). It is licensed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation Licencse. In the Wikipedia you can find a list of the authors by visiting the following address: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Masculism&action=history