The Six Yogas of N?ropa or Naro Choe Druk (Tib. ''na-ro'i-chos-drug), also called Naro's Six Doctrines or the Six Dharmas of Naropa (Mandarin: Ming Xing Dao Liu Cheng Jiu Fa; rendered in English as: Wisdom Activities Path Six Methods of Accomplishment''), describe a set of advanced Tibetan Buddhist tantric practice, trance and meditation sadhana compiled in and around the time of the Indian monk and mystic N?ropa (1016-1100 CE), and conveyed to his student Marpa the translator. The Six Yogas were intended in part to help in the attainment of siddhi and enlightenment in an accelerated manner.
Though variously classified, up to ten yogas, the Six Yogas generally conform to the following conceptual list: (Tibetan Wylie transliteration and Sanskrit in parentheses)
These three first are considered the main practices of the completion stage (T:dzog rim; S:[[sa?panna-krama|]]) in the Anuttara Yoga Tantra .
Other yogas, sometimes grouped with those above, or set as auxiliary practices, include:
As N?ropa is a Kagyu lineage holder, the six meditative practices are strongly associated with the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. The teachings of Tilopa (988-1069 CE) are the earliest known work on the Six Yogas. N?ropa learned the techniques from Tilopa. N?ropa's student Marpa taught the Tibetan Milarepa, renowned for his yogic skills. Milarepa in turn taught Gampopa. Gampopa's student, the future first Karmapa, Düsum Khyenpa, attained enlightenment while practicing the Six Yogas.
The Karmapa, the first figure in Tibetan Buddhism whose reincarnation was officially recognised, has been strongly associated in certain reincarnations with particular yogic attributes. Many Gelukpa practitioners, including the Dalai Lama, are expert in the Six Yogas of N?ropa.
The Six Yogas of Niguma are almost identical to the Six Yogas of N?ropa. Depending on the sources, Niguma was either his sister or his spiritual consort. Her teachings were transmitted to yogin Sukhasiddh? and then to Khyungpu Neldjor, the founder of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage.
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